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آرشیو مطالب نوشته شده قبلی - پزشکی فوق تخصصی دکتر رحمت سخنی Dr.Rahmat Sokhani
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آرشیو مطالب نوشته شده قبلی - پزشکی فوق تخصصی دکتر رحمت سخنی Dr.Rahmat Sokhani
دکتر رحمت سخنی
آدرس تماس با دکتر رحمت سخنی : آذربایجان غربی - اورمیه dr.rahmat.sokhani@gmail.com این سایت و 30 سایت پزشکی دیگراینجانب به صورت رایگان در خدمت هموطنان ایرانی داخل و خارج کشور بوده و امیدوارم توانسته باشم سهم بسیار اندکی در ارائه و تولید مطالب علمی داشته ونقش مثبتی را ایفا کرده و باعث شادی روح والدین شهیدعزیزم آقای ستوانیار شهید محمد سخنی و شهیده خانم جمیله رمضان شیخ سرمست باشم .ضمنا 60 سایت مشاوره رایگان پزشکی و پرستاری اضافه براینها برای دیگردوستان پزشک و پرستار خوب ایران اسلامیمان در خطه همیشه سرسبز و قهرمان آذربایجان طراحی و راه اندازی نمودم که انشالله مورد قبول مردم عزیز کشورمان و درگاه احدیت قرار گیرد . باسپاس دکتر رحمت سخنی آذربایجانین حکیم اوغلانه اورمو یوردون نان dr.rahmat.sokhani@gmail.com

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»» معرفی سایت پزشکی خانم دکتر Dr Chandra Jaysasuriya

 

پزشکی فوق تخصصی دکتر رحمت سخنی Dr.Rahmat Sokhani

دکتررحمت سخنی ازارومیه مرکزآموزشی درمانی امام خمینی (ره)

Dr.RAHMAT SOKHANI

http://chandrajayasuriya.com/

Dr Chandra Jaysasuriya (MBBS, MS, FRCS DLO) is a qualified consultant ENT Surgeon. She had her secondary education at Devi Balika Vidyalaya, Colombo and graduated from the Faculty of Medicine, Colombo. She completed her training in ENT surgery in Sri Lanka in 1996. She had her overseas training in the United Kingdom in Tameside Acute Care, Ashtonunderlyne.

Dr. Jayasuriya is the current Scientific Secretary of the College of Otolaryngologists and Head and Neck Surgeons of Sri Lanka. She is the founder president and present secretary of the Sri Lanka Laryngectomee Association.

She is a surgeon who attends many local and international seminars to upgrade her knowledge on new development and techniques in ENT surgery.

She has been involved in mass education by numerous particpations in television and radio programs. She is the author of "Obey Panayata Pilithurak" a quesion and answer book on common ENT ailments which is highly acclaimed by the Sri Lankan public.

She pioneered the productivity improvement program in the ENT unit by implementing 5 S method which was awarded National Quality Award as well.

She is a trainer of post graduate students in Otolaryngology from 2002 to date and also a member of board of study Otolaryngology of Post Graduate Institute of Medicine of Sri Lanka.

She has more than 25 years of experience in the medical field and currently works at the National Hospital of Sri Lanka, Colombo.

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WEST AZERBAIJAN  URMIA--Dr.RAHMAT SOKHANI



ارسال سوالات و نظرات ()
ارسال کننده متن فوق: » دکتر رحمت سخنی ( جمعه 90/12/19 :: ساعت 11:24 عصر )
»» Who is at risk of a DVT

 Dr.Rahmat Sokhani

Who is at risk of a DVT

All passengers are susceptible to developing a Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT), economy, business and first class flyers.

DVT is not, however, exclusive to long haul travellers, and any mode of transport which entails long periods of immobility may be responsible for DVT, including long bus, car and train journeys

Every year DVT occurs in about 1 in 2000 people in the general population, ranging from less than 1 in 3000 in people under the age of 40 up to 1 in 500 in those over 80. Some people are more susceptible to DVT than others. As a general rule, the risk of DVT automatically increases for those aged over 40, with less than 1 in 3,000 people aged under 40 effected by DVT, but 1 in in those over 80. This can also be compounded by one or more of the following risk factors

:In addition to the above, when flying DVT becomes more of a risk factor if you experience

It is vital to keep a level head, if you are concerned that DVT is a hindrance to flying. If you have any concerns or doubt, consult your local GP or travel clinic for expert advice.

Above all with regard to the general public, those at greatest risk are travellers who fail to move about and exercise during the flight.

What is a DVT

DVT stands for Deep Vein Thrombosis.

Blood should flow smoothly throughout the body without clotting. A blood clot is a thickening of the blood that the body normally forms to stop bleeding. Blood clots only become a problem when they develop inside a vein and block the normal flow of blood.

Problems occur when a blood clot firmly attaches to a vein. This can partly or completely block the flow of blood in that vein. This blockage stops the tissues in that location from getting normal blood flow and oxygen. If the blockage is not treated promptly it can result in damage or even death of the tissues in that area.

A blood clot that forms in a vein and remains there is called a thrombus. A thrombus that travels from the vein where it formed to another location in the body is called an embolus. When a blood clot occurs in a leg or pelvic vein it is called a deep vein thrombosis (DVT). When a blood clot travels to the lungs, it is called a pulmonary embolism



ارسال سوالات و نظرات ()
ارسال کننده متن فوق: » دکتر رحمت سخنی ( سه شنبه 89/6/2 :: ساعت 10:24 عصر )
»» سایتهای علمی دکتر رحمت سخنی Dr.Rahmat Sokhani

دکتر رحمت سخنی Dr.Rahmat Sokhani

سایتهای علمی دکتر رحمت سخنی

 Dr.Rahmat Sokhani

بی شک به تمام دوستداران علم و دانش پوشیده نیست تهیه یک مطلب علمی حتی به اندازه یک صفحه کوچک کاری بسیار سخت و طاقت فرسایی است ،که زحمات و وقت زیادی را می طلبد. اینجانب دکتر رحمت سخنی پزشک اورژانس مرکز آموزشی درمانی امام خمینی ره دانشگاه علوم پزشکی ارومیه مرکز آذربایجان غربی با یاری خداوند متعال و کمک خانواده و دوستان علمی دانشگاه و عشق به مردم و بیماران، بیست وشش سایت یا به عبارتی وبلاگ را در تمام زمینه های پزشکی و تعداد اندکی از آنها در ارتباط با مسایل عمومی راه اندازی و فعال نموده ام و امیداورم بتوانم قدم کوچکی در رابطه با حل مشکلات بیماران دردمندو ارتقاءعلم پزشکی ایران اسلامیمان مخصوصا آذربایجان همیشه سرافراز و قهرمان وگل سرسبد جهان اسلام را برداشته باشم و در این مقال از تمام دوستان پزشک و پرستار و هیات علمی دانشگاه علوم پزشکی ارومیه و خانواده ام که مرا یاری کردند سپاسگزارم میکنم .

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WEST AZERBAIJAN  URMIA--Dr.RAHMAT SOKHANI



ارسال سوالات و نظرات ()
ارسال کننده متن فوق: » دکتر رحمت سخنی ( چهارشنبه 88/7/1 :: ساعت 7:21 عصر )
»» OSTEOPOROSIS

OSTEOPOROSIS
By Dra. Annabel Carungin

دکتر رحمت سخنی از مرکز آموزشی درمانی امام خمینی (ره) ارومیه

Bone forms the skeleton, whick provides the mechanical framework for the body, is the body"s major store of calcium and protects the internal organs.  The skeleton should withstand mechanical stress and must be available for provision of calcium to maintain homeostasis.

Osteoporosis is a progressive disease in which the bones gradually become weaker and weaker, causing changes in posture and making the individual extremely susceptible to bone fractures.  The term osteoporosis, derived from Latin, literally means "porous bones".  Because of the physiological, nutritional and hormonal differences between males and females, osteoporosis primarily affects women.  In the United States, it is the most prevalent metabolic bone disease.  Indeed, this debilitating disease afflicts more women than heart disease, stroke, diabetes, breast cancer or arthritis.  Fully half of all women between the ages of forty five and seventy five show signs of some degree of osteoporosis.  Over a third of that group suffer from serious bone deterioration.  In the future, metabolic and age-related bone loss sysndromes will create an increasingly significant health care problem.

Bone mass - The amount of mineral in the bone, generally reaches its peak when a woman is between the ages of thirty and thirty five.  After that, it then begins to decline.  Between the ages of fifty five and seventy, women typically experience a 30-40% bone loss.

The adult skeleton undergoes a continual process of remodeling in which bone resorption is coupled with bone formation.  The entire remodelling cycle, from activation to complete repair, takes about 100 days.  At any onetime, about 2 million remodelling units are active throughout the human skeleton.  Bone resorption and formation are coupled.  In ideal homeostatis, the amount of bone at the initiation of a remodelling cycle is expected to be equal to the amount of bone at the completion of the same cycle.  Whenever bone resorption exceed bone formation, osteopenia or osteoporosis occurs.

Unfortunately, bone loss causes no symptoms while it is occuring, so it goes unnoticed until significant loss has occurred.  It is very common for a woman to be completely unaware of having osteoporosis until what should have been a minor accidents causes her to break a bone, often a wrist or hip.  If osteoporosis becomes quite advanced, even an enthusiastic hug can result in cracked or broken ribs.  As bone loss advances, the vertebrae are subject to what called compression fractures,  crowding the nerves of the spine and various internal organs and causing a lost of height. This can be very painful.  It is this compression that causes the "dowager"s hump" that many women develop as they age.  Osteoporosis can also be a contributing factor in toothloss; when the structure of the jawbone weakens, it can no longer hold the teeth firmly in place.

Many people have the impression that osteoporosis is caused solely by a dietary calcium deficiency and that it therefore can be remedied by taking calcium supplement.  This is not quite correct.  While calcium supplementation is important in dealing with osteoporosis, there are other condsiderations as well.

Several hormonal agents can affect the function of the bone cells.  The know regulators of calcium homeostasis in humans are parathyroid hormone, 1,25 - dihydroxyvitamin D3 and possibly calcitonin.  The imbalance of these hormones can contribute to bone loss.  Changes in hormone levels can be associated with an increased risk of osteoporosis.  Among these are changes in the serum parathyroid hormone concentration with age.  Decreased renal function decreases the plasma 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 level, and this effect may stinmulate the secretion of parathyroid hormone indirectly or directly.

Vitamin C,D,E and K all play vital roles in battling osteoporosis, as does protein.  Regulating the amounts of certain minerals such as magnesiun, phosphorus, silicon, boron, zinc,manganese and copper in the body are also important in maintaining proper calcium levels.  Exercise is another vital factor.

There are 2 basic types of osteoporosis.  Type I was known to be caused by hormonal changes, particularly a loss of estrogen, which causes the loss of minerals from the bones to accelerate.  Type II is linked to dietary deficiency, especially a lack of sufficient calcium and vitamin D, which is necessary for the absorption of calcium.  Many women mistakenly believe that osteoporosis is something they need be concerned about only after menopause.  However, recent evidence indicates that osteoporosis often begins early in life and is not strictly a postmenopausal problem.  Although bone loss accelerates after menopause, as a result of the drop in estrogen leveles, it begins in the premenopausal years.

A number of factors are known to influence an individual"s risk of developing osteoporosis.  The first and probably the most important is the peak bone mass achieved in adulthood; the larger and denser the bones are to begin with, the less debilitating bone loss is likely to be.  Small, fine-boned women therefore have more reason for concern than women with larger frames and heavier bones.  Dietary and lifestyle habits are important as well.  Insufficient calcium intake is one factor, but equally important are other dietary practices that affect calcium metabolism.  A diet high in animal protein, salt and sugar causes the body to excrete increased amounts of calcium.  The body then is forced to "steal" calcium from the bones to meet its requirements.  Caffeine, alcohol and many other drugs have a similar effect.  To much magnesium and / or phosphorus (found in most sodas and many processed food products) can inhibit the body from absorbing calcium properly, because these minerals compete with calcium for absorption in the blood and bone marrow.  Bone density also depends on exercise.  When it gets regular weight-bearing exercise (such as walking), the body responds by depositing more minerals in the bones, especially the bones of the legs, hips and spine.  Conversely, a lack of regular exercise accelerates the loss of bone mass. 

Other factors that make one more likely to develop osteoporosis include smoking, late puberty, early menopause (natural or artificially induced), a family history of the disease, hyperthyroidism, chronic liver or kidney disease and long term use of corticosteroids, anti-seizure medications or anticoagulants.

While osteoporosis causes no specific symptoms until it is advanced, there are some early warning signs that may signal bone loss is occuring.  These include a gradual loss of height, a stooping or rounding of the shoulders and generalized aches and pains.  If you notice that your clothes seem to be getting longer, that may be a clue.

Recommendations:

1. Eat plenty of foods that are high in calcium and vitamin D.  Good sources of easily assimilable calcium include broccoli, clams, most dark green leafy vegetables, hazelnuts, molasses, oats, oysters, salmon, sardines (with the bones), sea vegetables, sesame seeds, shrimps, soybeans, tofu and wheat germs.

2. Consume whole grains and calcium foods at different times.  Whole grains contain a substance that binds with calcium and prevents its uptake.  Take calcium at bedtime, when it is best absorbed and also aids in sleeping.

3. Include garlic and onions in the diet, as well as eggs (if your cholesterol level is not too high).  Thses foods contain sulfur, which is needed for healthy bones.

4. Limit your intake of almonds, asparagus, cashews and spinach.  These foods are high in oxalic acid, which inhibits calcium absorption.

5. Avoid phosphate-containing drinks and foods such as soft drinks, high- protein animal foods and alcohol.  Avoid smoking, sugar and salt.  Limit your consumption of citrus fruits and tomatoes;  these oods may inhibit calcium intake.

6. Avoid yeast products.  Yeast is high in phosphorus, which competes with calcium for absorption by the body.

7. If you are over 55 years old, include a calcium lactate (if you are not allergic to milk) or calcium phosphate supplement in your daily regimen, and take hydrochloric acid (HCl) supplements.  In order for calcium to be absorbed, there must be an adequate supply of Vitamin D as well as sufficient HCl in the stomach.  Older people often lack sufficient stomach acid.  

8. If you"re taking thyroid hormone or an anticoagulant drug, increase the amount of calcium you take by 25 to 50%..

9. If you"re taking a diuretic, consult your physician before beginning calcium and vitamin D supplementation.  Thiazide type diuretics increase blood calcium levels and complications may result if these drugs are taken in conjunction with calcium and vitamin D supplements.  Other types of diuretics increase calcium requirements, however.

10. Keep active, and exercise regularly.  A lack of exercise can result in the loss of calcium, but this can be reversed with sensible exercise.  Walking is probably the best exercise for maintaining bone mass.

11. Do Biomagnetic Therapy.

a. Meridian Energizing treatment, 3 times a day for 7 days to 2 weeks.

b. Daytime sternum and Nighttime treatment (daily).

c. Drink Magnetized Negative water with MSO.

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WEST AZERBAIJAN  URMIA--Dr.RAHMAT SOKHAN



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ارسال کننده متن فوق: » دکتر رحمت سخنی ( پنج شنبه 88/5/1 :: ساعت 10:48 عصر )
»» Ways to Get Rid of Constipation

constipation

 Ways to Get Rid of Constipation

 WEST AZERBAIJAN  URMIA--Dr.RAHMAT SOKHAN

Treat Constipation with  Grapes

Take 10-12 grapes take off there seeds. Boil a glass of milk and dip these grapes in it.
Drink this milk and chew the grapes along. Drinking this every night will surely prevent you from constipation.
This is very useful treatment for constipation.

   Treat Constipation with  Papaya

Eating papaya helps in passing stool easily hence a very useful remedy for constipation.

   Treat Constipation with  Almond oil

Take 1-2 teaspoons of almond oil; take it with milk before sleeping surly relives you from constipation.

   Treat Constipation with  Ginger

Take a dry ginger grind it properly to make its powder, take some dry senna leaves make its powder in same promotion. Put the mixture of two powders in lukewarm water and drink it before going to bed. It will help in passing of stool in morning.

   Treat Constipation with  Guavas

Eating 1-2 guavas with seeds will provide roughage to the diet and helps in easy digestion. This type of remedy is very simple yet very effective.

   Treat Constipation with  Cabbage

High fiber food like cabbage helps in proper functioning of bowels.
Taking cabbage juice of bowlful of cabbage leaves daily1-2 time before meals definitely helps in curing constipation.

  Treat Constipation with  Lemon

Take the lemon and make its slices. Leave it over night to process and extract the juice from it and drink it 1-2 times a day. This surly will help to ease constipation.
Do not put these slices in refrigerator but in some hygienic and clean place at room temperature.

   Treat Constipation with  Dates

Take some dates soak them in glass of hot water. Let this water to cool down and drink it.
Other method can be soaking dates in milk and drink the milk before doing to bed and chew the dates separately.

   Treat Constipation with  Apple

Apple has been proved to be effective way to cure constipation. Taking a apple every morning will help in passing the stool easily. It is a effective home remedy for constipation.

  Treat Constipation with  Bael

Eating a bael will help in passing stool and help in curing constipation problem.

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WEST AZERBAIJAN  URMIA--Dr.RAHMAT SOKHAN

دکتر رحمت سخنی از مرکز آموزشی درمانی امام خمینی (ره) ارومیه  



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ارسال کننده متن فوق: » دکتر رحمت سخنی ( جمعه 88/4/26 :: ساعت 10:55 عصر )
»» Breast Cancer Male

Breast Cancer Male


Abnormal

 

ویرایش  :دکتر رحمت سخنی از مرکز آموزشی درمانی امام خمینی (ره) ارومیه

  • Also see Breast Cancer -- general
  • Only one case of Breast Cancer occurs in men for every 100 in women.  The average age it occurs is 60.  Male Breast Cancer is usually more aggressive (worse) than female Breast Cancer.  Hormonal effects are thought to be the cause.

 

  • Breast lump
  • Nipple discharge
  • Enlarged breast tissue

 

  • Probably hormonal
  • Liver damage may contribute since a damaged liver does not process hormones well, and there are higher levels of hormones in the blood.  In some countries (Egypt, for example) where there is liver disease due to parasitic infections, the incidence of Breast Cancer in males is higher than in the United States.
  • There is a greater risk over the age of 65. It is rare under age 35.
  • Black men and men of European Jewish ancestry may have a higher risk than Caucasians.

 

  • Examination
  1.  
    1. Hard breast mass beneath the nipple or areola (pigment area)
    2. Enlarged lymph glands in the armpits, above collar bones, or in the center of the chest (mediastinal lymph nodes might be enlarged inside the chest, to the right and left of the midline)
    3. Retracted/eroded nipple
  • Testing
  •  
    1. Surgical biopsy
    2. Bone scan to check for a spread to bones
  •  

    • Modified radical mastectomy -- removal of breast, muscles below the breast, and the lymph glands in armpit
    • Radiation treatment to areas of metastasis, such as lymph glands or bones
    • Castration in advanced disease
    • Tamoxifen
    • Aminoglutethimide
    • Corticosteroids
    • Estrogen therapy

     

    • Seek immediate medical attention, as this is an aggressive cancer.  The earlier it is treated, the better the prognosis

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    WEST AZERBAIJAN  URMIA--Dr.RAHMAT SOKHANI

    دکتر رحمت سخنی از مرکز آموزشی درمانی امام خمینی (ره) ارومیه  



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    ارسال کننده متن فوق: » دکتر رحمت سخنی ( سه شنبه 88/2/29 :: ساعت 12:23 عصر )
    »» ?What is Depression

    ?What is Depression
    "Depression" is a mood disorder characterized by feelings of sadness, hopelessness, helplessness and worthlessness. It permeates through the body and mind. Depression lowers motivation and energy levels. This disorder takes control of the mind, body and soul. When depressed, you may often experience feelings of low esteem, guilt and self-reproach driving you to take irrational decisions. Depression often results from combination of factors - personal experiences, financial problems, tension or trauma in personal life. Whatever be the cause, depression is not just a state of mind. It is related to physical changes in the brain too. Depression is associated with an imbalance of neurotransmitters (chemicals that carries signals in your brain and nerves) in the brain.
    Types of Depression
    There are several forms of depression. Diagnoses for depression are mostly determined by the intensity and duration of the symptoms.
    Clinical Depression - Major depression or clinical depression is among the most severe depression disorders. Clinical depression is diagnosed in terms of symptoms and severity of the symptoms. A person affected by clinical depression may appear fully dejected and disinterested in regular activities. The victim will be more or less in a hopeless state. Persons affected with clinical depression may undergo appetite and weight loss.
    Dysthymic Disorder - Dysthymia is moderate level of depression. Most people go through this disorder even with out knowing that they are affected by dysthymia. These people undergo many changes that affect their quality of life. They may experience fatigue, sleeping and eating problems and be plagued by low self-esteem, guilt and negative thinking. These people may also suffer from concentration and memory problems. While the symptoms of dysthymia are not as pronounced as in clinical depression, they are more enduring and resistant to treatment.
    Manic Depression -
    Manic Depression or Bipolar depression is a kind of disorder associated with mood shifts. People affected by manic depression have sudden extreme mood swings, much like a rollercoaster ride. Manic depression is characterized by mood swings that can sometimes to be quite rapid. People who suffer from manic depression have an extremely high rate of suicide.
    Atypical Depression - This depression is common in women. Atypical depression is a variation of depression that is slightly different from major depression. The person affected may experience mood swings. Symptoms of atypical depression include fatigue, oversleeping, overeating and weight gain. This type of depression usually begins in adolescence and, if untreated, will often continue throughout life.
    Psychotic Depression - People who suffer from major depression may also show symptoms of psychotic depression. The affected person may hear and see imaginary things - sounds, voices and visuals that do not exist. Persons suffering from psychotic depression are prone to hallucinations, which are common with someone suffering from schizophrenia. This kind of depression requires immediate attention, as consequences may be fatal.
    Anxiety Disorder - Anxiety disorders are a form of emotional upsets. The affected person feels highly aroused and is afraid of a panic attack. An anxiety disorder is a constant feeling of tension and a person affected by this will have no reason for the way he/she feels.
    Postpartum Depression - Postpartum depression is the kind of depression that occurs in women after pregnancy. Postpartum depression is considered to be a form of major depression due to the similarity of symptoms in both the conditions. Studies indicate that about 10 % of new mothers develop postpartum depression. There are indications that postpartum pregnancy is common in women who have already experienced some form of depressive illness. Postpartum depression can happen anytime within the first year after childbirth. The symptoms of this disorder may include sadness, lack of energy, trouble concentrating, anxiety, feelings of guilt and worthlessness. The postpartum depression symptoms are more prolonged, severe and disabling. Hence it requires immediate attention and medical care. If left untreated, postpartum depression may last for months or years. In rare cases it may even become worse and may lead to a severe form of depression called postpartum psychosis. A combination of medication and psychotherapy treatments can help you relieve from postpartum depression.
    Signs and Symptoms of Depression
    The following are some of the most common symptoms of depression. Depression isolates, disables and contributes to deteriorating physical as well as emotional health. The severity of these symptoms may vary from person to perso.

  • persistent sadness, anxiety or emptiness

  • feelings of hopelessness, pessimism

  • feelings of guilt, worthlessness, helplessness

  • loss of interest or pleasure in hobbies and regular activities, including sex

  • decreased energy, fatigue

  • difficulty concentrating, remembering and making decisions

  • inability to think clearly, feeling fuzzy-headed

  • insomnia, early-morning awakening or oversleeping

  • loss of appetite and/or weight loss or overeating and weight gain

  • restlessness, irritability

  • persistent physical symptoms that do not respond to treatment, such as headaches, digestive disorders and chronic pain

  • thoughts or talk of death or suicide; suicide attempts

  • thoughts or talk of self-harm or harm to others.

    Depression treatment and support
    Depression can be treated through a combination of medication, talk therapy and other treatment strategies worked by your health care professional at a depression treatment center. The right depression treatment is the one that works best for you.
    Anti depression drug / Depression Medication Anti depression drugs are medications used to relieve and cure depression. They are used to treat serious, continuing mental depression that interferes with a person"s ability to function. These depression medications help reduce the extreme sadness, hopelessness and lack of interest in life that are typical in people with depression. All antidepressant drugs are effective, but certain types work best for certain kinds of depression. For example, people who are depressed and agitated do best when they take an antidepressant drug. Similarly, people who are depressed and withdrawn may benefit more from an antidepressant drug that has a stimulating effect.
    These depression medications having different chemical structures act on different chemicals in the brain in order to relieve depression and mental disorders. However, the same depression medication may not be effective for everyone. It is essential to work closely with a physician to determine which anti depression medication might be best for you. Sometimes this may involve trying more than one medication or a combination of medications. Never change your dosage or discontinue your medication without talking to your doctor. The list of medications provided here is just for information and does not replace your consultation with the physician. Some antidepressants prescribed by physicians include

  • Amoxapine
  • Bupropion
  • Clomipramine
  • Anafranil
  • Asendin
  • Effexor
  • Rapiflux
  • Wellbutrin
  • Zoloft
  • Zyban

    Zoloft
    Zoloft (Sertraline) is an anti depression drug indicated for the treatment of mental disorder. It improves a depressed person"s mood. This medication is generally prescribed for people with an obsessive compulsive disorder, panic attacks, post-trauma stress or anxiety disorders. Zoloft works by increasing the activity of the chemical sertonin in the brain.
    Depression treatment
    Talk Therapy - Apart from medication, your health care professional at a depression treatment center may also suggest psychotherapy or talk therapy in order to relieve your mental disorder. Psychotherapy can be used alone or in combination with other treatments and depression medications. However talk therapy is well suited to treat cases of mild to moderate depression. People with severe forms of depression may not benefit from psychotherapy until their symptoms have been lifted through another means of treatment. Interpersonal, groups and family can provide depression help.
    Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) - Electroconvulsive therapy is used to treat severe form of depression at a depression treatment center. When medications and psychotherapy fail to reduce symptoms, ECT can be an alternative treatment. ECT relieves depression through electrical stimulation to the brains. ECT is a painless form of depression treatment as muscle relaxants are administered to the anesthetized person to eliminate shaking.
    Deep Brain Stimulation - Deep brain stimulation therapy is used to help depression patients, who do not respond to psychotherapy or ECT. Deep brain stimulation is based upon the observation that a region of the brain called Brodmann area 25 is metabolically overactive in treatment-resistant depression. However, there are not enough studies to prove the effectiveness of this therapy.
    Depression support groups There are many depression support groups available both online and offline. Psychiatrists and psychologists of these centers help the depressed person through regular counseling. With the development in technology, there are also many online depression forums to help support the depressed one

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    WEST AZARBIJAN URMIA--Dr.RAHMAT SOKHANI



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    ارسال کننده متن فوق: » دکتر رحمت سخنی ( سه شنبه 87/6/5 :: ساعت 11:18 عصر )
    »» Migraine and Other Headaches

    Migraine and Other Headaches

    Primary headaches come from within the brain’s pain centers (trigeminal nucleus, thalamus,

    periaqueductal gray).These are medically and anatomically benign, but can be debilitating

    Migraine is a primary headache.

    Secondary Headaches

    Usually caused by blood vessel pathology, often emergent, dangerous, and last for days.

    DATA C2A2N are potentially-lethal secondary headaches: 

    Dissection of cerebral arteries or carotids is the leading cause of stroke in younger

    adultsMay present with Horner’s Syndrome Dissection causes continuous headache, usually after

    some head trauma. Dissections and large vessel embolisms are the only hemorrhagic situations i

    n which anti-coagulants (heparin) are used.

    Arteritis (giant cell) is the most common vasculitis and can cause permanent blindness.  May present

     with fatigue, fever, jaw claudication/cramping, arthralgias, monocular blindness.  Immediate steroid treatment is required to prevent blindness.

    Thrombosis causes cerebral hemorrhage, often in young women just after giving birth

     Continuous headache, worse when recumbent.  Often presents with papilledema or pulsatile tinnitus.

    Aneurysms are highly lethal blood leaks that come on within minutes.  May present with neck stiffness or photophobia.  Often mistaken for migraine.  Get a CT scan.

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is the number one cause of poisoning.  Often occurs in winter, and goes away when people go on vacation.  Presents with dizziness, light-headedness, lethargy.

    Colloid cyst of the 3rd ventricle will have severe, episodic sudden-onset headaches associated

     with fainting.  Relieved by lying down.  Treated surgically.  Colloid cysts are the only type of headache

    that can be excluded by head CT.

    Angle-closure glaucoma headaches are brought on by darkness, relieved by light.  Eye will be red.

    Angina causes episodic, exercise-induced headaches.  May or may not be chest pain.

    Norepinephrine neoplasm (pheochromocytoma) causes episodic, sudden-onset headaches.  Usually associated with palpitations, sweating, anxiety, dizziness, tremors.

    Other dangerous secondary headaches include cavernous sinus infection, encephalitis (herpes, listeria), hydrocephalus, meningitis, eclampsia, lead poisoning, pituitary apoplexy, stroke, tumors/cysts.

    Signs of dangerous headaches:  SNOOP

    Systemic diseases or symptoms (malignancy, fever, weight loss, myalgias, tachycardia)

    Neurologic symptoms (diplopia, confusion, papilledema)

    Onset within minutes

    Older patients

    Pattern changes (new type/quality of headache, increased severity/continuity)

    Diplopia + Headache is a very bad sign, but is never a sign of migraine! 

    Rather, diplopia + headache signals elevated ICP, pituitary apoplexy, meningitis, stroke, etc.

    Brain tumors in the absence of elevated ICP do not require urgent diagnosis.  Any condition with

     elevated ICP (signs include vomiting, worse with Valsalva/recumbancy) is an emergency.

    Analgesic rebound headaches” are due to headache medication overuse and tolerance. 

    These headaches are daily, cyclic, worse in the morning, and increase in severity over days.

    Migraine Headaches

    Migraines are recurrent headache attacks with a unilateral location, pulsating quality, aggravated  by physical activity, and associated with nausea.  If it’s not episodic, it’s not migraine.

    If there is aura, it usually lasts from minutes to one hour, and precedes the migraine headache.

    Migraines are more common in male children, but female adults.

    Migraines usually start with a trigger (dietary, hormonal, stress, strong visual or olfactory stimuli)

      Some of the most common triggers are dehydration, hunger, red wine, and menstrual periods.

    Migraines triggered by menstrual periods are called “catamenial migraines.”

    Aura

    The classic aura is called a “fortification spectrum” or “teichopsia” lasting 5-20 minutes.

    Visual auras are geometric zig-zagging, flickering arcs.  Usually white/gray, not colorful.

    Auras tend to leave a blur or “scotoma” in their wake.

    There are also other sensory, vestibular, auditory, linguistic, cognitive, etc. auras as well.

    **Auras are followed by a hemicranial (contra-aura) headache.  During a migraine there is

    polysensory phobia, anorexia, nausea, vomiting.  Headache is ipsilateral to the brain  changes,

     but contralateral to the visual auras.

    “Familial Hemiplegic Migraine” is a basilar migraine with motor manifestations, hemiplegia,

    hemisensory loss, and aphasia.  Caused by mutations in FHM1 (causes gain-of-function     

     calcium influx à hyperexcitability) or FHM2 (causes high extracellular potassium à           hyperexcitability).

    **FHM, like all migraines, is episodic and probably caused by calcium channelopathy.

    Glutamate is also likely involved in FHM.

    What causes migraines

    It was thought that vascular spasm ischemia caused auras and migraines.  But this doesn’t explain the spatial characteristics or slow onset of aura.  Also, auras have both positive and      negative visual and somatosensory auras, which is very unusual with cerebral ischemia.

    The current explanation is a “spreading depression” hypothesis.  There is a wavefront of intense     neural activity across visual cortex, followed by a wave of complete inhibitory activity.

    This explains the visual auras and the slow-moving scotoma that follows an aura.

    Spreading depression also activates the trigeminal nucleus, which causes cerebral pain.

    Pain persists because of neurogenic inflammation of cerebral blood vessels

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    WEST AZARBIJAN URMIA--Dr.RAHMAT SOKHANI.



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    ارسال کننده متن فوق: » دکتر رحمت سخنی ( شنبه 87/6/2 :: ساعت 7:18 عصر )
    »» About ALS

                                  About ALS 

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), commonly known as Lou Gehrig"s disease, is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that attacks motor neurons in the brain (upper motor neurons) and spinal cord (lower motor neurons).

    These motor neurons control the movement of voluntary muscles. When the motor neurons can no longer send impulses to the muscles due to ALS, the muscles begin to waste away (atrophy), causing increased muscle weakness. Motor neuron, or nerve cell, death makes it impossible for the brain to control muscles or signal them to move.

    Symptoms of ALS include twitching and cramping of muscles (called fasciculation), loss of motor control in hands and arms, impaired use of the arms and legs, weakness and fatigue, tripping and falling, dropping things, slurred or thick speech and difficulty breathing or swallowing.

    In most cases, ALS patients do not experience impaired intellectual reasoning, vision or hearing. Eye and bladder muscles, along with sexual function and drive, are not normally affected.

    ALS is diagnosed using a variety of tests and examinations, including laboratory tests, muscle and nerve biopsy, spinal tap, X-rays, MRI"s and electrodiagnostic tests.

    If not ALS, What else could this be

    Occasionally, the Neurologists at the center will give you a diagnosis which may be related to ALS, but not actually ALS. That can be a confusing situation, and we wanted to provide other resources for you. Although there is potentially no cure for many disorders affecting motor neurons, quality of life can be improved with diligent management and supportive, proactive treatment. Certain characteristics are true for most of these types of diseases, and most affect motor neurons. Motor neurons are divided into Upper Motor Neurons (UMNs) and Lower Motor Neurons (LMNs). UMNs carry information from the brain to the spinal cord where they connect with the LMNs (which move the muscles). Damage to the UMNs can cause spasticity (muscle stiffness) and exaggerated or abnormal reflexes, damage to LMNs results in weakness, atrophy (muscle wasting), decreased or absent reflexes, and fasciculations (involuntary muscle twitching). ALS is a progressive motor neuron disease which affects both UMNs and LMNs, and has to have both types of signs to be diagnosed, but many other motor neuron diseases do not have both.  Here are some common diagnoses, with information on each:

    *Bulbar Onset ALS
    *Brachial Amyotrophic Diplegia
    *Spinal Muscular Atrophy
    *Primary Lateral Sclerosis
    *Progressive Bulbar Palsy
    *Progressive Muscular Atrophy
    *Pseudobulbar Palsy
    *Spinal Bulbar Muscular Atorphy(Kennedy"s Diease)

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    WEST AZARBIJAN URMIA--Dr.RAHMAT SOKHANI

    *Multifocal Neuropathy



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    ارسال کننده متن فوق: » دکتر رحمت سخنی ( سه شنبه 87/5/22 :: ساعت 9:57 صبح )
    »» Alzheimer's Disease History

    Alzheimer"s Disease History

    Alzheimer’s disease history stems back to 1901 when a German psychiatrist, Dr. Alois Alzheimer, interviewed a 51-year-old woman named Mrs. Auguste D.  Auguste D.’ declinding mental health forced her husband to seek treatment.  After not being able to recall several s shown to her by Dr. Alzheimer moments later, she became the first diagnosed patient in Alzheimer’s disease history.  Although at the time it was termed “amnesic writing disorder”.  

    Further along in the story of Alzheimer’s disease history, comes the laboratory of pre-eminent Emil Kraepelin, where Alzheimer would later work, collaborating with Kraepelin in Munich, Germany.  Kraepelin, who at this point had already written a leading psychiatric textbook, believed strongly that neuropathology could be linked to psychiatric behavior. 

    When Auguste. D. died 5 years after he original interview, Alzheimer examined her anatomy and neuropathology.  And seven months later, he presented his findings describing the neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid plaques that have become a recognizable, fundamental signs of the disorder
    Alzheimer"s Disease History

    Occording to Alzheimer’s disease history, Kraepelin would later write about this, crediting the diagnosing of the condition to Dr. Alzheimer, securing the now established Alzheimer’s disease amongst the medical community. 

    Alzheimer’s disease history has predominantly reserved the diagnosis for patients between the ages of 45 and 65, since older patients were typically regarded as experiencing the normal effects of aging.  However, in more recent Alzheimer’s disease history, specifically in the late 1970’s, the disorder has been accepted to be applicable to all ages, due to the identical symptoms found in young and old patients

    www.alzheimers-treatment101.com

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    WEST AZARBIJAN URMIA--Dr.RAHMAT SOKHANI



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